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Exit le contrat de travail ?

samedi 17 janvier 2015 par Gérard Filoche

 
Article initialement publié le 18 décembre 2014 dans L’Humanité, pages débats, La Loi Macron va-t-elle accélérer la libéralisation du droit du travail  ?.

La loi Macron veut « déréguler pour libérer les énergies et créer de l’emploi ». Chacun sait que c’est évidemment l’inverse : c’est là ou il y a le moins de réglementation qu’il y a le plus de chômage. La preuve : depuis dix ans qu’ils dérégulent, le chômage s’accroit. L’ANI du 11 janvier et la loi qui en est issue du 14 juin 2013, devaient « sécuriser l’emploi » : on a 350 000 chômeurs de plus.

Dans la loi Macron les déréglementations du dimanche et de nuit ne rapporteront absolument rien, ni en chiffres d’affaires ni en emploi, ni aux salaires. C’est purement idéologique pour “casser” la journée de 8 h et la semaine de 35 h. La loi Macron supprime toute majoration de salaire et les renvoient à des négociations individualisées.

Car ce ne sont pas les ouvertures du dimanche et de nuit dans le commerce qui sont les plus importantes dans la loi Macron : c’est la volonté de changer la nature du contrat de travail elle-même et la facilitation des licenciements.

1°) Dans le projet déposé à l’Assemblée nationale, une modification du Code civil et de l’article 24 de la loi du 8 février 1995 est tout à la fin de l’article 83 (Chapitre II droit du travail section I Justice prud’homale p 61).

Pour les experts, c’est le plus incroyable de la loi Macron : c’est cette modification de l’article 2064 du code civil et l’abrogation de l’article 24 de la loi n° 95-125 du 8 février 1995 relative à l’organisation des juridictions et à la procédure civile, pénale et administrative. Il s’agit là de permettre des contrats qui ne relèvent plus du droit du travail mais du droit civil : ce type de contrat permettrait de s’exonérer de la loi et des accords collectifs, du moment qu’employeurs et salariés règlent leurs litiges par convention entre eux de gré à gré ! Et les prud’hommes sont alors dessaisis. Soumis librement de votre plein gré, vous n’êtes plus en situation d’y réclamer des droits. Le contrat de travail devient un contrat civil. Fin du code du travail.

2°) Sur les licenciements pour motif économique, la modification est à l’article 102 (section 6 Amélioration du dispositif de sécurisation de l’emploi p 70 ; modification de l’article L.1235-16 du Code du travail).

Grâce à la loi du 14 juin 2013, l’employeur pouvait déjà, sur les 4 critères de choix des licencié(e)s, retenir prioritairement, par exemple, le critère arbitraire de la « qualité professionnelle » au détriment des critères sociaux (charges de famille, âge, handicap, ancienneté). Le projet Macron permet à l’employeur de moduler même les critères choisis en les fixant « à un niveau inférieur à celui de l’entreprise ». En clair, le pouvoir de licencier qui on veut, sans critère.

Le projet Macron simplifie les « petits licenciements » de 2 à 9 salariés dans les entreprises de plus de 50 salariés et ceux dans les entreprises en redressement ou en liquidation judiciaire. Il n’y aura plus d’obligation de formation, d’adaptation et de reclassement au niveau du groupe, mais seulement « dans l’entreprise ».

Le projet Macron permet le licenciement sans retour et sans indemnités des salariés pour lesquels le tribunal administratif aurait annulé la décision d’homologation du plan de licenciement. En clair si la décision de l’administration a été cassée pour « insuffisance de motivation », la loi prévoit que le jugement du tribunal administratif ne modifie pas la « validité du licenciement » et donc « ne donne pas lieu au versement d’une indemnité à la charge de l’employeur ». C’est Ubu : votre licenciement est cassé, mais vous n’en retirez rien, ni réintégrés ni indemnisés !

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